# so2 ratio in natural gas boilers

### What is the utilization ratio of natural gas boilers

What is the utilization ratio of natural gas boilers 2017-10-16 16:33:00. What is the utilization rate of natural gas boiler? Compared to coal fired boilers, biomass fired boiler, the efficiency of gas fired boiler is very high, the basic requirements of the country is 92%, while natural gas steam boiler produced by ZBG can reach more than 95%.

### Gas Ratio Calculator - Apps on Google Play

Sep 26, 2018 · Use the Gas Ratio Calculator to process the results from your Gas Flue Analyser and find the CO/CO2 ratio for natural gas. If the boiler is running efficiently there may be no need to service it. Simply test the boiler with your analyser and obtain the oxygen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide values.

### The whats, hows and whys of NOx emissions in commercial boilers

In a commercial boiler, fuel such as natural gas is ignited which is used to heat water to be distributed in the heating system. In theory, this involves the burning of only methane (CH 4 – main component of natural gas) and oxygen (O 2 – injected air) which produce carbon dioxide (CO 2) and water (H 2 O).

### Low Temperature Corrosion in Boiler and Its Prevention

The higher the percentage of sulphur, the higher will be the risk of cold end corrosion in the boiler. The sulphur in the fuel during combustion gets converted to sulphur dioxide. Depending upon the other impurities present in the fuel and excess air levels, some portion of the sulphur dioxide gets converted to sulphur trioxide.

### Ratio Control and Metered-Air Combustion Processes – Control Guru

CO 2 = carbon dioxide CO = carbon monoxide H 2 O = water Air = 21% oxygen (O 2) and 79% nitrogen (N 2) Fuel = hydrocarbon such as natural gas or liquid fuel oil. Air is largely composed of oxygen and nitrogen. It is the oxygen in the air that combines with the carbon in the fuel in a highly energetic reaction called combustion.

### Natural Gas Fired Boilers - Innovative Combustion

Natural gas contains very little sulfur and as a result, produces very low SO2 emissions. The most common additive to add odor to natural gas is Mercaptan (CH3SH : Methanethiol). WHAT TO EXPECT WHEN NATURAL GAS IS FIRED IN A COAL-FIRED BOILER ⇧ Furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) is likely to increase

### Formation and Control of Sulfur Oxides in Boilers

oxides in the flue gas. Typically, the flue gas concentration of SO2 is of the order of 0.1 to 0.25% by volume. Dif-ferent investigatoi s have found differ-ent degrees of conversion of SO2, to SO3, but, in general, one may expect 1 to 5% conversion. The formation of SO3 in boilers is a complex process, which is not thoroughly understood. Present

### Gas Detection in Boiler Rooms - Kenexis

Industry has noted gas leaks in boilers to be a significant safety hazard, and in many cases have implemented corporate standards that require combustible gas detection in the vicinity of boilers. Furthermore, there is often a requirement that a confirmed gas leak should result in automatic isolation of the fuel gas supply.

### Combustion Fundamentals - Industrial Wiki - odesie by Tech

Natural gas has an H/C ratio of in excess of 0.3. Fuel oil has an H/C ratio of above 0.1. Since hydrogen is the lightest element and the molecular weight of carbon is six times that of hydrogen, a decrease in the H/C ratio increases the specific gravity and the density of the fuel.

### CHP Environmental

Sulphur dioxide content (kg) per MWh thermal input Coal 1.2 24 1.08 3.47 Heavy fuel oil 2.0 40 1.16 3.33 Gas-oil 0.15 3 0.08 0.24 Natural gas nil nil nil nil †Assumes 80% of total energy is 'available' from combustion. The most effective way of reducing sulphur dioxide emissions is to reduce the amount of

### Combustion Flue Gas Analysis

December 2006 Combustion & Flue Gas Analysis 9 Excellence in measurements Fuels : Methane ( Natural Gas ) Discovered by Alessandro Volta in 1778 The simplest hydrocarbon, methane, is a gas with a chemical formula of CH4. Pure methane is odorless, but when used commercially is usually mixed with small quantities of odorants, strongly-smelling sulfur

### Flue-gas desulfurization - Wikipedia

Methods. Dry sorbent injection systems that introduce powdered hydrated lime (or other sorbent material) into exhaust ducts to eliminate SO2 and SO3 from process emissions. For a typical coal-fired power station, flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) may remove 90 percent or more of the SO 2 in the flue gases.

### United States Environmental Protection Agency General Air

Natural gas combustion boilers are used to generate industrial electric power, produce industrial process steam and heat, and heat residential and commercial space. 3. Natural gas is generally more than 85 percent methane with varying amounts of eth ane, propane, butane, and inert gases (typically nitrogen, carbon dioxide (CO. 2), and helium).

### Understanding Combustion Efficiency and Combustion Equations

Typically for natural gas the ultimate CO2 is 11.7%. This would be achieved when the O2 in the flue gasses was at 0% Some analyzers also allow for the max CO2 to be input by the user if the heat content of the fuel is known.

### ENERGY STAR Most Efficient 2019 — Boilers | Products | ENERGY

HTP EP Series. Features: The Elite Premier is a low mass boiler with a 316L stainless steel heat exchanger. This unit reaches up to 399,000 BTUs and comes in seven models. This floor or wall mount system is good for residential and commercial applications. It is 96% efficient with a 10 to 1 turndown.

### Boiler - Natural Gas Fired - Calculate Emissions

Contact Us. 1021 North Grand Ave. East P.O. Box 19276 Springfield, IL 62794-9276 (217) 782-3397

### Boiler Combustion | CleanBoiler.org

Low excess air firing can be used on most boilers and generally results in overall NOx reductions of 5-10% when firing natural gas. Low Nitrogen Fuel Oil When firing fuel oils, NOx formed by fuel-bound nitrogen can account for 20-50% of the total NOx level.

### Air Fuel Ratio Effect on Combustion Efficiency

Oct 23, 2013 · For natural gas fired burners, the stoichiometric air required is 9.4-11 ft.3 / 1.0 ft.3 of natural gas, or approximately an air-to-gas ratio of approximately 10:1. This results in an excess oxygen level of 2%. In the combustion zone, it is difficult to measure excess air.

### Avoiding Safety Issues with Natural Gas-Fired Steam Boilers

Aug 01, 2017 · Avoiding Safety Issues with Natural Gas-Fired Steam Boilers These energy sources drive the process industry, but require attention to safety. Maintenance, inspection, training and monitoring of the boiler are keys to safe operation.

### INDUSTRIAL NATURAL GAS ENERGY EFFICIENCY CALCULATOR TOOLS

California’s industrial sector is estimated to use about 23 percent of all natural gas consumed annually in the state. This sector is vital to Californiaʹs economy and depends on affordable,

### Sulfuric Acid Mist Generation in Utility Boiler Flue Gas

Test data of fine sulfuric acid mist formation after mixing two gas streams is presented in Table 1 [9] Table 1 When the H2SO4 concentration after mixing ranges from 50 – 200 ppm, the average measured droplet diameter is less than 0.05 mk. But under high concentration of sulfuric acid, where regular condensation and growth of

### Optimization of Trona/Limestone Injection for SO2 Control in

Abstract. Mobotec USA develops and markets air pollution control systems for utility boilers and other combustion systems. They have a particular interest in technologies that can reduce NOx, SOx, and mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, and have been investigating the injection of sorbents such as limestone and trona into a boiler to reduce SOx and Hg emissions.

### Stoichiometric Air or Theoretical Air Quantity: Calculation

1 kg Sulphur +1 kg Oxygen >2 kg Sulphur Dioxide. For this example, we are considering coal having a makeup of 57.2 % Carbon, 2.2 % Hydrogen, 0.5 % Sulphur and 6.9 % Oxygen. The theoretical oxygen required to burn this coal is then 2.67 x C % + 8 x H% + 1 x S % – O% = 1.64 kg of Oxygen for 1 kg of Coal.

### Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Gas| Sulphur Dioxide Detector Solutions

Sulphur dioxide(SO2) is a colourless gas with an irritating pungent odour. It readily dissolves in water and is one of the main chemicals that causes acid rain. It is a common air pollutant and is produced naturally by active volcanoes and forest fires.

### Tips for combustion analysis of commercial boilers | 2016-02

The combustion analyzer measures the air-to-fuel ratio of the burner and calculates the efficiency of the boiler. The analyzer also may display the emissions output from the boiler. Each cubic foot of natural gas burned produces: 8 cubic ft. of nitrogen; 2 cubic ft. of water; and; 1 cubic ft. of carbon dioxide.

### so2 ratio in natural gas boilers - ferienwohnungjaehner.de

so2 ratio in natural gas boilers Accounting of SO2 Emissions from Combustion in This study builds the accounting framework of SO2 emissions from combustion in industrial boilers and set up a high resolution SO2 emissions inventory of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

### What is the sulfur content in natural gas - Answers

Emissions of SO2 from natural gas-fired boilers are low because pipeline quality natural gas typically has sulfur levels of 2,000 grains per million cubic feet.

### 1.4 Natural Gas Combustion - US EPA

Emissions of SO2 from natural gas-fired boilers are low because pipeline quality natural gas typically has sulfur levels of 2,000 grains per million cubic feet. However, sulfur-containing odorants are added to natural gas for detecting leaks, leading to small amounts of SO2 emissions. Boilers

### Flue gas - Wikipedia

Carbon dioxide (CO 2), the next largest part of flue gas, can be as much as 10−25 volume percent or more of the flue gas. This is closely followed in volume by water vapor (H 2 O) created by the combustion of the hydrogen in the fuel with atmospheric oxygen.

### CHAPTER 3 COMBUSTION CALCULATION

and water entering the boiler is assumed at 25oC. The flue gas leaves the boiler at 300oC (all the water formed will be vapour). In addition, a substantial amount of heat is also lost through the boiler wall and other uncounted sources. Calculate the flue gas composition (both dry and wet basis) leaving a boiler.

### Natural Gas Fired Boilers - Innovative Combustion

The boiler efficiency is usually reduced to 84-85%, when a coal fired boiler is converted to natural gas. The biggest change is due to the combustion of Hydrogen. This is normally a 4% heat loss while firing coal and about a 11% heat loss while firing natural gas.

### NPI EETM Combustion in Boilers Ver 3.5

EET MANUAL Combustion in boilers ANZSIC 2006 Any industry sector where combustion is used in the production of steam for energy and/or hot water, i.e. ANZSIC 2006 Divisions A – S. NPI substances are those that, when emitted at certain levels, have potential to be harmful.

### ACC 4th Class PE Chapter 57 Combustion and Fuels - Quizlet

Start studying ACC 4th Class PE Chapter 57 Combustion and Fuels. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

### Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection

GUIDE TO LOW-EMISSION BOILER AND COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT SELECTION C. B. Oland Date Published: April 2002 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies Prepared by OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 managed by UT-BATTELLE, LLC for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725

### Combustion Efficiency and Excess Air - Engineering ToolBox

15 - 60% for coal Carbon dioxide - CO 2 - is a combustion product and the content of CO 2 in a flue gas is an important indication of the combustion efficiency. Optimal content of carbon dioxide - CO 2 - after combustion is approximately 10% for natural gas and approximately 13% for lighter oils.

### Sulfuric Acid Mist Generation in Utility Boiler Flue Gas

particles take place, the mist droplet size is actually larger. For example at 3.6% concentration of sulfuric acid in the gas phase, the average diameter of mist is 0.5 mk (Table 1). A similar process of mist formation takes place over a surface of high concentration sulfuric acid. At acid strengths below 98.5%, the acid begins to exert a

### Pollution Control in Boilers | Just Venting

Oct 30, 2019 · The selection of fuel to burn in the boiler is the first opportunity to reduce flue gas contaminants. For example, natural gas burns cleaner than fuel oil, medical waste, or biomass and produces the least amount of pollutants in its flue gas. Natural gas is considered a low-nitrogen fuel and yields very little NOx as a by-product of combustion.

### Natural Gas Calculator - Combustion Portal

Emissions calculator for natural-gas-fired boilers. Enter the heat input, amount of fuel burned per year, then select the units and finally click on "Calculate Emissions." The values will appear below.

### Natural Gas Combustion Emission Calculator ver 1.2

Average of 3 years annual natural gas comsumption Health Protection Air Quality By-law 2010-035 Daily Average Emissions (kg/day) Emissions Calculation Tool for Natural Gas Combustion NO2 (Low NOx burners /w Recir.) How to use this spreadsheet: a. Populate the table with past natural gas consumption data. (up to three years of data).

### How High Efficiency Condensing Gas Boilers Work

May 15, 2014 · Air mixed with hydrocarbons such as natural gas, oil, and propane, produces in heat, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. These are commonly referred to as products of combustion, and make up the flue gases that exit the boiler via the flue or chimney. What is a high efficiency condensing gas boiler?